Basic Components of Computer System - Hardware & Software

In this tutorial, You learn about the basic components of Computer system. Also, learn software and hardware components of computer and John Von Neumann architecture in detail with the help of a block diagram of a computer.

The Components of computers are divided into Hardware components and Software components and to learn this we will take help from block diagram to understand computer components. The block diagram of computer is also called Von Neumann Architecture. Named on after the mathematics and a computer scientist “Jon Von Neumann”. The Von Neumann Architecture or block diagram of computer is a designed model for a stored-program architecture. 

Hardware Components of Computers System

  1. Input Unit
  2. Output Unit
  3. Storage Unit
  4. Processing Unit

block diagram of computer and components of Computer System
Block Diagram of Computer

Components of Computer

  1. Input unit: Input unit consists of all input devices which use to enter the data or instructions to a computer before the process and converting it into computer understand only binary code(0 or 1). Examples of input components of computer system are keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc. are responsible for the input unit.
  2. Storage: The process of saving instruction or data in the computer memory is known as storage of data. All the data and instruction are stored in computer memory before actual processing starts and after all processing and desired results of the process again store to memory. It is of two types:- 
    • Primary Storage: It is the main memory of the computer. The computer can access all the data and instruction of primary memory very quickly. It is used to store data, intermediate results, and final results here. It is very limited storage capacity it cannot remember anything after it is switched OFF. Examples of primary storage components of the computer system are Ram, etc. 
    • Secondary Storage: Secondary is the memory that gives extra help to store data in it and we can store data in a permanent form and when we cannot require data it can easily be removed. It will remember anything after Switch OFF. It is cheap as compare to primary and it has large storage capacity. Examples of secondary storage components of the computer system are hard disk, pen drive, etc.
  3. Processing unit: The central processing unit or processing unit consists of a Control unit and Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).it is the control center of the computer.
    • Arithmetic Logic Unit: The place where actual logical and arithmetic processing of data and instruction takes place. Data and instruction are sent from the storage unit to ALU, where all the calculations on the data and instruction take place and the desired result is returned to the memory. And intermediate results are generated in the Arithmetic Logic Unit are transfer to primary memory until required later.
    • Control unit: Control Unit is responsible for all controlling and guides all activities of all work of the input-output unit and the control unit sends the control signal until the work is done properly by Arithmetic Logic Unit and memory.
  4. Output unit: The output unit consists of all output devices which use to supply the data and instruction to the outside world after the process and converting it into a humanly understandable form. Examples of output components of the computer system are Monitor, printer, speaker, etc. are responsible for the output unit.

You learn the basic components of Computer system. Also, learn software and hardware components of computer and John Von Neumann architecture in detail with the help of a block diagram of a computer.

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